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高压断路器工作原理

2014-8-25 17:10:32点击:
高压断路器在高压电路中起控制作用,是高压电路中的重要电器元件之一。断路器用于在正常运行时接通或断开电路,故障情况在继电保护装置的作用下迅速断开电路,特殊情况(如自动重合到故障线路上时)下可靠地接通短路电流。高压断路器是在正常或故障情况下接通或断开高压电路的专用电器。
断路器的工作状态(断开或者闭合)是由他的操动机构控制的。
高压负荷开关、高压隔离开关和高压断路器的区别:
1、高压负荷开关是可以带负荷分断的,有自灭弧功能,但它的开断容量很小很有限。
2、高压隔离开关一般是不能带负荷分断的,结构上没有灭弧罩,也有能分断负荷的高压隔离开关,只是结构上与负荷开关不同,相对来说简单一些。
3、高压负荷开关和高压隔离开关,都可以形成明显断开点,大部分高压断路器不具隔离功能,也有少数高压断路器具隔离功能。
4、高压隔离开关不具备保护功能,高压负荷开关的保护一般是加熔断器保护,只有速断和过流。
5、高压断路器的开断容量可以在制造过程中做的很高。主要是依靠加电流互感器配合二次设备来保护。可具有短路保护、过载保护、漏电保护等功能。
高压断路器的主要结构大体分为:导流部分, 灭弧部分,绝缘部分,操作机构部分。高压开关的主要类型按灭弧介质分为:油断路器, 空气断路器,真空断路器,六氟化硫断路器, 固体产气断路器, 磁吹断路器。
按操作性质可分为:电动机构, 气动机构,液压机构,弹簧储能机构,手动机构。
(1)油断路器。利用变压器油作为灭弧介质, 分多油和少油两种类型。
(2)六氟化硫断路器。采用惰性气体六氟化硫来灭弧,并利用它所具有的很高的绝缘性能来增强触头间的绝缘。
(3)真空断路器。触头密封在高真空的灭弧室内,利用真空的高绝缘性能来灭弧。
(4)空气断路器。利用高速流动的压缩空气来灭弧。
(5)固体产气断路器。利用固体产气物质在电弧高温作用下分解出来的气体来灭弧。
(6)磁吹断路器。断路时, 利用本身流过的大电流产生的电磁力将电弧迅速拉长而吸人磁性灭弧室内冷却熄灭。[